BSc Medical

Overview of B.Sc. Pass course Medical (Zoology)

A Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) Pass course in the medical field is a undergraduate degree program that typically spans over three to four years, depending on the institution and country. This course is designed to provide students with a broad understanding of various aspects of medical sciences, laying the foundation for further specialization or employment in related fields. Its focus lies on the study of Anatomy, Physiology, Biodiversity, Biochemistry, Entomology, Microbiology, Pathology, and Genetics. These subjects provide students with a fundamental understanding of the human body, its functions, and basic medical sciences. This field provides a solid foundation in medical sciences, practical skills, and opportunities for further specialization or employment in diverse healthcare settings

Why Choose BSc . Pass course Medical (Zoology) ?

Ø Practical Training: Hands-on practical training is a crucial component of the course. Students typically engage in laboratory work, dissections, experiments, and clinical rotations to apply theoretical knowledge in real-life scenarios. This practical training helps students develop essential skills and gain practical experience.

 

Ø Soft Skills Development:  This focus on the development of soft skills such as communication, teamwork, empathy, and professionalism.

 

Ø Elective Courses: Depending on the program structure, students may have the option to choose elective courses in specialized areas such as Immunology, Medical Imaging, Epidemiology, or Health Informatics. Elective courses allow students to tailor their education according to their interests and career goals.

 

Career Opportunities: BSc . Pass course medical (Zoology) opens up a wide range of career paths and opportunities including healthcare settings :

v Hospitals

v Clinics

v  pharmaceutical companies

v research institutions

v public health organizations

v pursue further education in specialized areas like medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing, or allied health professions.

 

         SYLLABUS:

SEMESTER I

SEMESTER II

Life and Diversity from Protozoa to Helminthes

Life and Diversity from Annelida to Hemichordata

Cell Biology

Genetics

Practical

Practical

SEMESTER III

SEMESTER IV

Life and Diversity of Chordates- I

Life and Diversity of Chordates – II

Mammalian Physiology I

Mammalian Physiology II

Practical

Practical

SEMESTER V

SEMESTER VI

Fish and fisheries

Entomology

Ecology & Evolution

Developmental Biology

Practical

Practical

 

SYLLABUS (B.Sc.- ZOOLOGY)

                                  B. Sc. SEMESTER I

 

LIFE AND DIVERSITY FROM PROTOZOA TO HELMINTHES

 

Max Marks: 40+10 (Internal assessment)                          Time allotted: 3 Hours

 

Note: Nine questions are to be set in all and the candidates are required to attempt five questions including compulsory question.

1.     Question number I is compulsory consisting of 8 parts (1.0 mark each) covering the entire syllabus. Answer to each part should not exceed 20 words.

2.     Out of remaining eight questions, two questions are to be set from each unit (I to IV), possibly splitting them in parts. Candidate is required to attempt four questions, selecting one question from each unit.

 

UNIT-1

Phylum- Protozoa

i)               General characters and classification up to order level

ii)             Biodiversity and economic importance

iii)           Type study of Plasmodium;

iv)             Parasitic protozoans: Life history, mode of infection and pathogenicity of Entamoeba, Trypanosoma, Leishmania and Giardia.

 

UNIT-II

Phylum- Porifera:

i)               General characters and classification up to order level

ii)              Biodiversity and economic importance

iii)            Type study Sycon.

iv)            Canal system in sponges

v)            Spicules in sponges

 

UNIT-III

Phylum Coelentrata:

i)               General characters and classification up to order level

ii)             Biodiversity, economic importance

iii)            Type Study Obelia

iv)            Corals and coral reefs

v)              Polymorphism in Siphonophores

 

UNIT-IV

 

Phylum Helminths:

i)               General characters and classification up to order level

ii)             Biodiversity, economic importance

iii)            Type study Fasciola hepatica

iv)             Helminths parasites: Brief account of life history, mode of infection and pathogenesity of Schistosoma, Ancylostoma, Trichinella, Wuchereria and Oxyuris.

 

 

 


SYLLABUS (B.Sc.- ZOOLOGY)

                                   B. Sc. SEMESTER I

                                       CELL BIOLOGY

 

Max Marks: 40+10 (Internal assessment)                                   Time allotted: 3 Hours

 

Note: Nine questions are to be set in all and the candidates are required to attempt five questions including compulsory question.

1. Question number I is compulsory consisting of 8 parts (1.0 mark each) covering the entire syllabus. Answer to each part should not exceed 20 words.

2 Out of remaining eight questions, two questions are to be set from each unit (I to IV), possibly splitting them in parts. Candidate is required to attempt four questions, selecting one question from each unit.

 

UNIT-I

 

1.       Ultrastructure of different cell organelles of animal cell.

2.       Plasma Membrane: Fluid mosaic model, various modes of transport across the membrane, mechanism of active and passive transport, endocytosis and exocytosis.

3.       Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): types, role of ER in protein synthesis and transportation in animal cell.

4.       Goigi complex: Structure, Associated enzymes and role of golgi-complex in animal cell.

 

UNIT-II

 

1      Ribosomes: Types, biogenesis and role in protein synthesis.

2      Lysosomes: Structure, enzyme and their role; polymorphism

3      Mitochondria: Mitochondrial DNA; as semiautonomous body, biogenesis, mitochondrial enzymes ( only names), role of mitochondria.

4      Cytoskeleton: Microtubules, microfilaments, centriole and basal body. 5 Cilia and Flagella

UNIT-III

 

1.    Ultrastructure and functions of Nucleus: Nuclear· membrane, nuclear lamina, nucleolus, fine structure of chromosomes, nucleosome concept and role of histones,

2.    Euchromatin and heterochromatin, lampbrush chromosomes and polytene chromosomes.

 

UNIT-IV

 

1.     Mitosis and Meiosis (Cell reproduction)

2.     Brief account of causes of cancer.

3.     An elementary idea of cellular basis of Immunity.

 

 


                                        SYLLABUS (B.Sc.- ZOOLOGY)

                                          B. Sc. SEMESTER I

 

PRACTICAL

Max. Marks:50                                                                                                Time allowed: 3Hrs

(A)  Classification up to orders with ecological note and economic importance of the following animal:

I. Protozoa                   Lamination of cultures of Amoeba, Euglena and Paramecium; permanent prepared slides: Amoeba, Euglena, Trypanosoma, Noctiluca, Eimeria, Paramecium (binary fission and conjugation), Opalina, Verticella, Balantidium, Nyctotherus, radiolarian and formaniferan ooze.

2.  Parazoa (Porifera) Specimens: Sycon. Grantia, Euplectella, Hyalonema, Spongilla, Euspongia

3.  Coelenterata.            Specimens: Porpita, Valella, Physalia, Aurelia, Rhyzostoma, Metridium, Millipora, Alcyonium, Tubipora, Zoanthus, Madrepora, Favia, Fungia, and Astrea,

Permanent prepared slides: Hydra (W.M.), Hydra with buds, Obelia (colony and medusa), Sertularia, Plumularia, Tubularia, and Bougainvillea, Aurelia (sense organs and stages of life history).

4.  Platyhelminthes         Specimens: Dugesia, Fasciola, Taenia, Echinococus,

Permannt prepared slides: Miracidium, sporocyst, redia, cercaria, scolex and proglotttids; Taenia (mature and gravid).

5.  Aschelminthes             Ascaris (male & female), Trichinella, Ancylostoma, Meloidogyne.


(B) Study of the following permanent stained preparations:

I.     L.S. and TS. Sycon; gemmules, spicules and sponging fibres of Sycon, canal system of sponges.

2.     TS. Hydra (testis and ovary region).

3.     T.S. Fasciola (different regions).

4.     T.S. Ascaris (male and female).


(C)   Preparation of the following slides:

1.  Temporary preparation of Volvox, Paramecium, Gemmules and spicules of Sycon

2.  Preparation of permanent stained whole mounts of Hydra, Obelia, Sertularia, Plumularia and Bougainvillea.

3.  Pathogenic protozoans: Plasmodium, Giardia or as available

4.   Pathogenic Helminthes: Ancylostma; Wuchereria or as available


(D) Cell biology and Genetics:

I.   Cell division: Prepared slides of stages of mitosis and meiosis.

2. Temporary squash preparations of onion root tip / grasshopper testis for the study of mitosis using acetocarmine stain.

(E) Project:

1. Parasitic adaptations ( Protozoa to helminthes)

2. DNA: types, structure and its model preparation

3. Survey- Diversity of particular family/taxa in your surrounding area

4. Microscopy: principles and its significance

5.Staining techniques and their significance


(F)  Disaster Management Project Work: (Field Work, Case Studies)

For details see the UGC Website

 


SYLLABUS (B.Sc.- ZOOLOGY)

                                     B. Sc. SEMESTER II

 

LIFE AND DIVERSITY OF ANNELIDA TO HEMICHORDATA

 

Max Marks: 40+10 (Internal assessment)                                 Time allotted: 3 Hours

 

Note: Nine questions are to be set in all and the candidates are required to attempt five questions including compulsory question.

1. Question number I is compulsory consisting of 8 parts (1.0 mark each) covering the entire syllabus. Answer to each part should not exceed 20 words.

2    Out of remaining eight questions, two questions are to be set from each unit (I to IV), possibly splitting them in parts. Candidate is required to attempt four questions, selecting one question from each unit.

 

UNIT-I

Phylum Annelida:

i)     General characters and classification up to order level

ii)    Biodiversity and economic importance of Annelida

iii)  Type study Pheretima (Earthworm)

iv)  Metamerism in Annelida

v)  Trochophore larva:. Affinities, evolutionary significance

 

UNIT-II

Phylum Arthropoda:

i)  General characters and classification up to order level

ii)  Biodiversity and economic importance of insects

iii)  Type study Periplaneta

 

 

UNIT-III

Phylum Mollusca:

i)     General characters and classification up to order level

ii)    Biodiversity and economic importance

iii)  Type study Pila

iv)  Torsion and detorsion in gastropoda

v)     Respiration and foot

 

UNIT-IV

Phylum Echinodermata:

i)     General characters and classification up to order level

ii)    Biodiversity and economic importance

iii)  Type Study -Asteries (Sea Star)

iv)  Echinoderm larvae

v)  Aristotle’s Lantern

 

Phylum – Hemichordata: Type study: Balanoglossus

 


                                     SYLLABUS (B.Sc.- ZOOLOGY)

                                       B. Sc. SEMESTER II

 

GENETICS

 

Max Marks: 40+10 (Internal assessment)                                         Time allotted: 3 Hours

 

Note: Nine questions are to be set in all and the candidates are required to attempt five questions including compulsory question.

1.     Question number I is compulsory consisting of 8 parts (1.0 mark each) covering the entire syllabus. Answer to each part should not exceed 20 words.

2.     Out of remaining eight questions, two questions are to be set from each unit (I to IV), possibly splitting them in parts. Candidate is required to attempt four questions, selecting one question from each unit.

 

UNIT-I

1.     Elements of Heredity and variations.

2.     The varieties of gene interactions

3.     Linkage and recombination: Coupling and repulsion hypothesis, crossing-over and chiasma formation; gene mapping.

UNIT-II

1.     Sex determination and its mechanism: male and female heterozygous systems, genetic balance system; role of Y -chromosome, male haploidy, cytoplasmic and environmental factors, role of hormones in sex determination.

2.     Sex linked inheritance: Haemophilia and colour blindness in man, eye colour in Drosophila, Non- disjunction of sex-chromosome in Drosophila; Sex-linked and sex influenced inheritance.

3.     Extra chromosomal and cytoplasmic inheritance:

i)          Kappa particles in Paramecium.

ii)         Shell coiling in snails.

iii)      Milk factor in mice.

 

UNIT-III

1.     Multiple allelism: Eye colour in Drosophila; A, B, 0 blood group in man.

2.     Human genetics: Human karyotype, Chromosomal abnormalities involving autosomes and sex chromosomes, monozygotic and dizygotic twins.

3.     Inborn errors of metabolism (Alcaptonuria, Phenylketonuria, Albinism, sickle-cell anaemia).

 

UNIT-IV

1.      Nature and function of genetic material; Structure and type of nucleic acids; Protein synthesis. spontaneous and induced (chemical and radiations) mutations; gene mutations; chemical basis of mutations; transition, transversion, structural chromosomal aberrations (deletion, duplication, inversion and translocation); Numerical aberrations (autoploidy, euploidy and polyploidy in animals)

2.      Applied genetics: Eugenics, euthenics and euphenics; genetic counseling, pre-natal diagnostics, DNA-finger printing, transgenic animals

 

 


SYLLABUS (B.Sc.- ZOOLOGY)

B. Sc. SEMESTER II

 

PRACTICAL

Max. Marks:50                                                                                           Time allowed: 3Hrs

 

(A)  Classification up to orders with ecological note and economic importance of the following group of animals:

1.  Annelida Specimens:Pheretima, Heteronereis, Polynoe, Aphrodite, Chaetopterus, Arenicola, Tubifex and Pontobdella.

2.  Arthropoda Specimens: Peripatus, Palaemon (Prawn), Lobster, Cancer (crab), Sacculina, Eupagurus (hermit crab), Lepas, Balanus, Cyclops, Daphnia, Lepisma, Periplaneta (cockroach), Schistocerca (locust), Poecilocerus (ak-hopper), Gryllus (cricket), Mantis (praying mantis),Cicada, Forticula (earwig), Dragon fly, termite queen, bug, moth, beetle, Polistes (wasp), Apis (honey bee), Bombyx (silk moth), Cimex (begbug), Pediculus (body louse). Millipedes, Scolopendra (centipedes), Palamnaeus (scorpion), Aranea (spider), Limulus (king crab).

3.  Mollusca Specimens: Mytilus, Ostrea, Cardium, Pholas, Solen

(razor fish), Pecten, Holiotis, Patella, Aplysia, Doris, Limax, Loligo, Sepia, Octopus, Nautilus (complete and T.S.), Chiton and Dentalium.

4.  Echinodermata Specimens: Asterias, Echinus, Cucumara, Ophiothrix, Antedon and Asterophyton.

5.  Hemichordata Balanoglossus

(B)  Study of the following permanent stained preparations:

1.  T.S. Pheretima (pharyngeal and typhlosolar regions), Setae, septal nephridia and spermathecae of Pheretima.

2.  Trachea and mouthpmts of cockroach. 3.Statocyst of Palaemon.

4.  Glochidium larva of Anodonta; radula and osphradium of Pila.

5.  T.S. Star fish (arm)

6.  T.S. Balanoglossus (through various regions).

(C)Demonstration by C. D.:

1 . Mouth parts and trachea of Periplanata (cockroach), radula of Pila; pedicillarae of Asterias.

2. setae of earthworm, and mouth parts of Honey bee, House fly and cockroach.

(D)  Preparation of models of the different systems of the following animals:

1.  Earthworm: Digestive, reproductive and nervous systems.

2.  Grasshopper/ cockroach: Digestive, reproductive and nervous systems.

3.  Pila: Pallial complex, digestive and nervous systems

(E)  Cell biology and Genetics:

1.  Salivary gland and polytene chromosomes of Drosophila/Chironomus.

2.  Numericals based on three point test cross

(F)  Project:

1.  Survey- Diversity of particular family/taxa in your surrounding area

2.  Vermicomposting: Earthworm rearing and economics of the project

3.  Evolutionary significance of larvae belonging to different group of invertebrates


 

 

B.Sc. PART- I (Zoology Practical) (Semester I & II)

Guidelines/Instructions for Practical Examination

P-101 and P-201

 

Max Marks: 50+50                                                                       Time allowed: 3+3 Hrs

 

Note: Following exercises will be set in the examination as per marks assigned

 

S. No.

Exercise

Marks

 

 

P-101

P-201

1.

Dissection

x

3

 

(Exposition, labelled diagram)

x

 

2.

Temporary mounting –one

3

3

 

(Staining, identification, sketch)

 

 

3.

Museum specimens four

12

12

 

(identification and classification)

 

 

4.

Ecological note –one specimen

3

3

5.

Permanent slides two

4

4

 

(Identification with reasons)

 

 

6.

Preparation of chromosome slide

4

4

 

(root tip/grasshopper testis)

 

 

7.

Invertebrate collection and report

4 (2+2)

4 (2+2)

8.

Practical record and slides

7 (5+2)

7 (5+2)

9.

Viva

5

5

10

Project report

8

5


SYLLABUS (B.Sc.- ZOOLOGY)

B. Sc. SEMESTER III

 

LIFE AND DIVERSITY OF CHORDATES I

Max Marks: 40+10 (Internal assessment)                                Time allotted: 3 Hours

 

Note: Nine questions are to be set in all and the candidates are required to attempt five questions including compulsory question.

1.    Question number I is compulsory consisting of 10 parts (1.0 mark each) covering the entire syllabus. Answer to each part should not exceed 20 words.

2.    Out of remaining eight questions, two questions are to be set from each unit (I to IV), possibly splitting them in parts. Candidate is required to attempt four questions, selecting one question from each unit.

UNIT-I

Chordates:

Principles of classification; Origin and Evolutionary tree; Role of amnion in evolution; Salient features of chordates;

Functional morphology of the types with examples emphasizing their biodiversity, economic importance and conservation measures where required.

UNIT-II

General characters and classification of phyla upto orders with examples emphasizing their biodiversity,

economic importance and conservation measures where required.

Protochordates: Systematic position, distribution, ecology, morphology and affinities Urochordata: Herdmania type study

Cephalochordata; Amphioxus type study

UNIT-III

General characters and classification of phyla upto orders with examples emphasizing their biodiversity,

economic importance and conservation measures where required.

Cyclostomes: Classification and ecological significance Type study of Petromyzon.

UNIT-IV

General characters and classification of all phyla upto orders with examples emphasizing their biodiversity,

economic importance and conservation measures where required.

Pisces: Scales & Fins, Parental care in fishes, fish migration.

Types study of Labeo

 

Note: Type study includes detailed study of various systems of the animal.

 


SYLLABUS (B.Sc.- ZOOLOGY)

B. Sc. SEMESTER III

MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY I

Max Marks: 40+10 (Internal assessment)                         Time allotted: 3 Hours Note: Nine questions are to be set in all and the candidates are required to attempt five questions including compulsory question.

1.    Question number I is compulsory consisting of 10 parts (1.0 mark each) covering the entire syllabus. Answer to each part should not exceed 20 words.

2.     Out of remaining eight questions, two questions are to be set from each unit (I to IV), possibly splitting them in parts. Candidate is required to attempt four questions, selecting one question from each unit.

 

UNIT-I

Introduction, Classification, Structure, function and general properties of carbohydrates and lipids.

UNIT-II

Introduction, Classification, Structure, function and general properties of proteins; Nomenclature, Classification and mechanisms of enzyme action.

Transport through biomembranes (Active and Passive), buffers

UNIT-III

Nutrition: Nutritional components; Carbohydrates, fats, lipids, Vitamins and Minerals. Types of nutrition & feeding, Digestion of dietary constituents, viz. lipids, proteins, carbohydrates & nucleic acids; symbiotic digestion. Absorption of nutrients & assimilation; control of enzyme secretion.

UNIT-IV

Muscles:     Types of muscles, ultra-structure of skeletal muscle. Bio-chemical and physical events during muscle contraction; single muscle twitch, tetanus, muscle fatigue muscle, tone, oxygen debt., Cori’s cycle, single unit smooth muscles, their physical and functional properties.

Bones:                Structure and types, classification, bone growth and resorption, effect of ageing on skeletal system and bone disorders.

 

 


SYLLABUS (B.Sc.- ZOOLOGY)

B. Sc. SEMESTER III

 

PRACTICAL (P-301)

 

Max. Marks:50                                                          Time allowed: 3Hrs

1.    Classification upto orders, habit, habitats, external characters and economic importance (if any) of the following animals:-

Protochordata         :         Molqula, Hetryllus, Pyrosoma, Doliolum, Olikopleura, and Amphioxus.

Cyclostomata           :         Myxine, Petromyzon and Ammocoetus larva.

Chondrichthyes:     Zygaena, Pristis, Narcine (electric ray), Trygon, Rhinobatus, Raja and

Chimaera.

Osteichthyes     :     Acipenser, Lepidosteus, Muraena, Mystus, Catla, Hippocampus, Syngnathus, Exocoetus, Anabas, Diodon, Ostraczion, Tetradon, Echinus, Lophius, Solea and Polypterus. Any of the Lung Fishes.

 

2.    Preparation of models of the different systems of the following animals:

Herdmania: General anatomy

Labeo (locally available fish): Digestive and reproductive systems: cranial nerves

 

3.    Study of the skeleton of Scoliodon, Labeo

 

4.    Study of the following prepared slides: Tornaria larva, T.S. Amphioxus (through different regionds). Oikopleura, different types of scales.

 

 

5.    Make permanent stained preparations of the following: Salpa, Spicules, and Cycloid scales

6.             Zoological excursion and its report PHYSIOLOGY PRACTICALS:

1.             Qualitative tests for identification of simple sugars, disaccharides and polysaccharides.

2.             Study of human salivary amylase activity: Effect of temperature, pH, Concentration.

 

Project Report:

1.     Migration in fishes

2.     Ornamental fishes

 

7.    Disaster Management Project Work: (Field Work, Case Studies. for details see the UGC Website


SYLLABUS (B.Sc.- ZOOLOGY)

B. Sc. SEMESTER IV

 

LIFE AND DIVERSITY OF CHORDATES II

 

Max Marks: 40+10 (Internal assessment)                         Time allotted: 3 Hours

 

Note: Nine questions are to be set in all and the candidates are required to attempt five questions including compulsory question.

1.   Question number I is compulsory consisting of 10 parts (1.0 mark each) covering the entire syllabus. Answer to each part should not exceed 20 words.

2.    Out of remaining eight questions, two questions are to be set from each unit (I to IV), possibly splitting them in parts. Candidate is required to attempt four questions, selecting one question from each unit.

UNIT-I

Amphibia:    Origin, Evolutionary tree. Type study of frog (Rana tigrina), Parental Care in Amphibia

UNIT-II

Reptilia: Type study of Lizard (Hemidactylus), Origin, Evolutionary tree. Extinct reptiles; Poisonous and non-poisonous snakes; Poison apparatus in snakes.

UNIT-III

Aves: Type study of Pigeon (Columba livia); Flight adaptation, Principles of aerodynamics in Bird flight, migration in birds.

UNIT-IV

Mammals:  Classification, type study of Rat; Adaptive radiations of mammals and dentition.

Note: Type study includes detailed study of various systems of the animal.


SYLLABUS (B.Sc.- ZOOLOGY)

 

B. Sc. SEMESTER IV

 

MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY II

Max Marks: 40+10 (Internal assessment)                           Time allotted: 3 Hours Note: Nine questions are to be set in all and the candidates are required to attempt five questions including compulsory question.

1.     Question number I is compulsory consisting of 10 parts (1.0 mark each) covering the entire syllabus. Answer to each part should not exceed 20 words.

2.Out of remaining eight questions, two questions are to be set from each unit (I to IV), possibly splitting them in parts. Candidate is required to attempt four questions, selecting one question from each unit.

UNIT-I

Circulation: Origin, conduction and regulation of heart beat, cardiac cycle, electrocardiogram, cardiac output, fluid pressure and flow pressure in closed and open circulatory system; Composition and functions of blood & lymph; Mechanism of coagulation of blood, coagulation factors; anticoagulants, haempoiesis

UNIT-II

Respiration: Exchange of respiratory gases, transport of gases, lung air volumes, oxygen dissociation curve of hemoglobin, Bohr’s effect, Haburger’s phenomenon (Chloride shift), control / regulation of respiration.

Excretion: Patterns of excretory products viz. Amonotelic, ureotlic uricotelic, ornithine cycle (Kreb’s– Henseleit cycle) for urea formation in liver.

UNIT-III

Excretion: Urine formation, counter-current mechanism of urine concentration, osmoregulation, micturition.

Neural Integration: Nature, origin and propagation of nerve impulse along with medullated & non-medullated nerve fibre, conduction of nerve impulse across synapse.

UNIT-IV

Chemical integration of Endocrinology:       Structure and mechanism of hormone action; physiology of hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas and gonads.

Reproduction: Spermatogenesis, Capacitation of spermatozoa, ovulation, formation of corpus luteum, oestrous-anoestrous cycle, Menstrual cycle in human; fertilization, implantation and gestation.


SYLLABUS (B.Sc.- ZOOLOGY)

B. Sc. SEMESTER IV

 

PRACTICAL (P-401)

Max. Marks: 50                                                            Time allowed: 3Hrs

 

1.    Classification up to orders, habit, habitats, external characters and economic importance (if any) of the following animals:-

Amphibia    : Necturus, Proteus, Amphiuma, Salamandra, Amblystoma, Axolotie     larva, Alytes, Bufo, Rana.

Reptilia          : Hemidactylus, Calotes, Draco, Varanus, Phrynosoma, Chamaeleon, Typhops, Python, Eryx, Ptyas, Bungarus, Naja, Hydrus, Viper, Crocodilus, Gavialis, Chelone (Turtle) and Testudo (Tortoise).

Aves               : Casuarius, Arden, Anas, Milvus, Pavo, Eudynamis, Tyto and Alcedo, Halcyon

Mammalia    : Ornithorphynchus, Echidna, Didelphis, Macropus, Loris, Macaque, Hystrix, Funambulus, Telix, Panthera, Canis, Herpestes, Capra, Pteropus

 

2.    Preparation of models of the different systems of the following animals: Hemidactylus       :                        Digestive, arterial, venous and urinogenital systems. Rat :           Digestive, arterial, venous and urinogenital systems.

 

3.    Study of the skeleton of Rana (Frog), Varanus, Pigeon or Gallus and Orcyctolagus/rat

 

4.    Study of the following prepared slides: Histology of rat (compound tissues).

 

5.             Study and collection of Quill, Contour, Filoplume and Down feathers

 

 

PHYSIOLOGY PRACTICALS:

1.              Estimation of abnormal constituents of urine (Albumin, sugar, ketone bodies).

2.              Use of respirometer.

3.              Haematein crystal preparation.

4.              Estimation of Hb.

5.              DLC of Man/RBC count/WBC count.

 

Project Report:

1.     Survey of diversity

2.     Parental care

3.     Dentition in mammals

4.     Migration in birds


B.Sc. PART- II (Zoology Practical) (Semester 3 & 4)

Guidelines/Instructions for Practical Examination

P-301 and P-401

Max Marks: 50+50                                                                             Time allowed: 3+3 Hrs

Note: Following exercises will be set in the examination as per marks assigned

 

S. No.

Exercise

Max Marks P-301

Max Marks P-401

1.

Model Preparation

5

5

2.

Temporary mounting –one

2

Not applicable

 

(Staining, identification, sketch)

 

 

3.

Museum specimens four

6

6

(identification and classification)

 

 

4.

Ecological note –one specimen

2

2

5.

Permanent slides – two (Identification with reasons)

3

3

6.

Bone identification & sketch

4

4

7.

Physiology (two exercise)

5

5

8.

Zoological excursion and its report

6

 

9.

Collection and a brief note on feathers

 

4+4

10.

Practical record and slides

5

5

11.

Viva

4

4

12.

Project report

8

8


SYLLABUS (B.Sc.- ZOOLOGY)

B. Sc. SEMESTER V

FISH AND FISHERIES

 

Max Marks: 40+10 (Internal Assessment)                                         Time allotted: 3 Hours Note:    Nine questions are to be set in all and the candidates are required to attempt five questions including the compulsory question

1.              Question 1 is compulsory consisting of 10 parts (1.0 marks each) covering the entire syllabus. Answer to each part should not exceed 20 words.

2.              Out of remaining eight questions, two questions are to be set from each unit (I to IV), possibly splitting them in parts. Candidates are required to attempt four questions, selecting one from each unit.

 

Unit I

1.        Introduction to world fisheries:          Production, utilization and demand.

2               Fresh Water fishes of India: River system, reservoir, pond, tank fisheries; captive and culture fisheries, cold water fisheries.

Unit II

3               Fishing crafts and gears.

4.      Fin fishes, Crustaceans, Molluscs and their culture.

Unit III

Seed production:  Natural seed resources its assessment, collection, Hatchery production.

2               Nutrition:     Sources of food (Natural, Artificial) and feed composition (Calorie and Chemical ingredients).

Unit IV

3               Field Culture: Ponds-running water, recycled water, cage, culture; poly culture.

4.              Culture technology:        Biotechnology, gene manipulation and cryopreservation of gametes.

 


SYLLABUS (B.Sc.- ZOOLOGY)

B. Sc. SEMESTER V

 

ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION

 

Max Marks: 40+10 (Internal Assessment)                                         Time allotted: 3 Hours Note:    Nine questions are to be set in all and the candidates are required to attempt five questions including the compulsory question

3.              Question 1 is compulsory consisting of 10 parts (1.0 marks each) covering the entire syllabus. Answer to each part should not exceed 20 words.

4.              Out of remaining eight questions, two questions are to be set from each unit (I to IV), possibly splitting them in parts. Candidates are required to attempt four questions, selecting one from each unit.

Unit I

1.   Basic concepts of ecology:   Definition,   significance.   Concepts   of   habitat   and ecological niche.

2       Factors affecting environment: Abiotic factors (light-intensity, quality and duration), temperature, humidity, topography; edaphic factors; biotic factors.

Unit II

1.              Ecosystem: Concept, components, properties and functions; Ecological energetics and energy flow-food chain, food web, trophic structure; ecological pyramids concept of productivity.

2.              Biogeochemical cycles: Concept, reservoir pool, gaseous cycles and sedimentary cycles.

3.              Population: Growth and regulation.

Unit III

Origin of life.

1.              Concept and evidences of organic evolution.

2.              Theories of organic evolution.

3.              Concept of microevolution and concept of species

 

Unit IV

1.              Concept of macro-and mega-evolution.

2.              Phylogeny of horse.

3.              Evolution of man.


SYLLABUS (B.Sc.- ZOOLOGY)

B. Sc. SEMESTER V

 

PRACTICAL (P-501)

 

Max. Marks:50                                                                                           Time allowed: 3Hrs

 

1.    Identification of Catle, Labeo rohita, L. calbasu, Cirrhius, mrigala Puntius sarana, Channa punctatus, C. marulius. C. stariatus, Trichogaster fasciata, Mystus seenghala, M. cavasius,

M. tengra, Callichrous pabola, C. bimaculatus, Wallago attu, Prawns, Crabs, Lobsters, Calms, Mussels & Oysters.

 

2.    Chemical analysis of pond water and soil for pH, dissolved oxygen, free CO2 nitrates, phosphates and chlorides.

 

 

3.    A study of the slides of fish parasites.

 

4.    A study of the different types of nets, e.g., cast net, gill net, drift net and drags net.

 

 

5.    A visit to lake/reservoir/fish breeding centre.

 

6.  Evolutionary evidences and/or its demonstration through models/video/CD etc and preparation of working models of the different systems of the following animals:

Adaptive modifications in feet and beaks of birds

Evolutionary evidences of man and horse.

7.  Project report :

i)   Pearl culture

ii)  Prawn culture


SYLLABUS (B.Sc.- ZOOLOGY)

B. Sc. SEMESTER VI

ENTOMOLOGY

Max Marks: 40+10 (Internal Assessment)                                         Time allotted: 3 Hours Note: Nine questions are to be set in all and the candidates are required to attempt five questions including the compulsory question

1.              Question 1 is compulsory consisting of 10 parts (1.0 marks each) covering the entire syllabus. Answer to each part should not exceed 20 words.

2.              Out of remaining eight questions, two questions are to be set from each unit (I to IV), possibly splitting them in parts. Candidates are required to attempt four questions, selecting one from each unit.

Unit I

Study of important insect pests of crops and vegetables:

1     Sugarcane:

(a)            Sugarcane leaf-hopper (Pyrilla perpusilla)

(b)            Sugarcane Whitefly (Aleurolobus barodensis)

(c)            Sugarcane top borer (Sciropophaga nivella)

(d)            Sugarcane root borer (Emmalocera depresella)

(e)            Gurdaspur borer (Bissetia steniellus)

With their systematic position, habits and nature of damage caused. Life cycle and control of

Pyrilla perpusilla only.

2     Cotton:

(a)            Pink bollworm (Pestinophora gossypfolla)

(b)            Red cotton bug (Dysdercus Cingulatus)

(c)            Cotton grey weevil (Myllocerus undecimpustulatus)

(d)            Cotton Jassid (Amrasca devastans)

With their systematic position, habits and nature of damage caused. Life cycle and control of

Pectinophore gossypiella.

 


 

3     Wheat:


Unit II

 

Wheat stem borer (Sesamia inferens) with its systematics position,


habits, nature of damage caused. Life cycle and control.

4     Paddy:

(a)            Gundhi bug (Leptocorisa acuta)

(b)            Rice grasshopper (Hieroglyphus banian)

(c)            Rice stem borer (Scirpophaga incertullus)

(d)            Rice Hispa (Diceladispa armigera)

With their systematic position, habits and nature of damage caused. Life cycle and control of

Loptocorisa acuta.

Unit III

5               Vegetables

(a)            Raphidopalpa faveicollis The Red pumpkin beetle.

(b)            Dacus cucurbitas The pumpkin fruit fly.

(c)            Tetranychus tecarius The vegetable mite.

(d)            Epilachna The Hadda beetle.

Their systematics position, habits and nature of damage caused. Life cycle and control of

Aulacophora faveicollis.

6     Stored grains:

(a)            Pulse beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus)


(b)            Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae)

(c)            Wheat weevil (Trogoderma granarium)

(d)            Rust Red Flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum)

(e)            Lesser grain borer (Rhizopertha dominica)

(f)             Grain & Flour moth (Sitotroga cerealella)

Their systematic position, habits and nature of damage caused. Life cycle and control of

Trogoderma granarium.

Unit IV

6.              Insect control: Biological control, its history, requirement and precautions and feasibility of biological agents for control.

7.              Chemical control:  History, Categories of pesticides. Important pesticides from each category to pests against which they can be used. Insect repellants and attractants.

8.              Integrated pest management.

9.              Important bird and rodent pests of agriculture & their management.

 

 

 


SYLLABUS (B.Sc.- ZOOLOGY)

B. Sc. SEMESTER VI

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY

Max Marks: 40+10 (Internal Assessment)                                         Time allotted: 3 Hours

 

Note : Nine questions are to be set in all and the candidates are required to attempt five questions including the compulsory question

1.              Question 1 is compulsory consisting of 10 parts (1.0 marks each) covering the entire syllabus. Answer to each part should not exceed 20 words.

2.              Out of remaining eight questions, two questions are to be set from each unit (I to IV), possibly splitting them in parts. Candidates are required to attempt four questions, selecting one from each unit.

 

Unit I

 

1.              Historical perspectives, aims and scope of developmental biology.

2.              Generalized structure of mammalian ovum & sperm. Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis.

 

Unit II

1.              Fertilization, parthenogenesis, different types of eggs and patterns of cleavage in invertebrates and vertebrates.

2.              Process of blastulation in invertebrates and vertebrates

3.              Fate-map construction in frog and chick.

 

Unit III

1.              Gastrulation in invertebrates and vertebrates

2.              Gastrulation & formation of three germinal layers in frog and chick.

2.      Elementary knowledge of primary organizers.

 

Unit IV

1.              Extra embryonic membranes: structure & significance in birds and mammals.

2.              Concepts of competence, determination and differentiation.

3.              Concept of regeneration.

 


SYLLABUS (B.Sc.- ZOOLOGY)

B. Sc. SEMESTER VI

 

PRACTICAL (P-601)

Max. Marks:50                                                                                           Time allowed: 3Hrs

 

1.       External morphology, identification marks, nature of damage and host of the following pests:

i.     Sugarcane: Sugarcane leaf-hopper, Sugarcane whitefly, Sugarcane

top borer, Sugarcane root borer, Gurdaspur borer (any two).

ii.     Cotton :  Red Cotton bug

iii.     Wheat:   Wheat stem borer

iv.     Paddy:   Gundhi bug, Rice grasshopper, Rice stem borer, Rice hispa (any one).

v.     Vegetables: Aulocophora faveicollis, Dacus cucurbitas, Tetranychus tecarious, Epilachna (any three).

vi.     Pests of stored grains: Pulse beetle, Rice weevil, Grain & Flour moth, Rust-red flour beetle, lessergrain borer (any three).

 

2.       Preparation of permanent/temporary slides of developmental stages of frog/mosquito

 

3.       Study of permanent slides of WM of chick embryo (13-18h, 24-36h, 36-48h, 48-72h).

 

4.       Window preparation and identification of stages of development in chick egg.

 

5.       Project report:

1.  Apiculture

2.  Sericulture


B.Sc. PART- III

Semester V & VI

Guidelines/Instructions for Practical Examination

P-501 and P-601

Max Marks: 50+50                                                                             Time allowed: 3+3 Hrs

 

SNo

Title of experiment

MM P-501

MM P-601

1.

Chemical analysis of water/soil

5

2.

Identification and Classification of specimens (Four)

8

3.

Ecological note on economically important specimen (two+two)

6

6

4.

Evolutionary evidences

3

5.

Slides/nets etc

3

6.

Field report

8

7.

Identification and Classification of specimens (Four)

8

8.

Comment on the Life cycle of a given pest

5

9.

Identification of embryological slides with reasons of identification (Two)

6

10.

Preparation of window in the egg

4

11.

Preparation of the permanent/temporary slides of the various development stages of frog/mosquito.

4

12.

Project report

7

7

13.

Practical note book

5

5

14.

Viva-voce

5

5

 

Note: Field report/collection to be submitted during exam

 


 

Overview of B.Sc. Pass course Medical (Botany)

Botany is the scientific study of plants including their structure. growth, reproduction, metabolism, physiology, development, genetics. disease, treatment and evolution it also includes the identification classification and nomenclature of plants it includes sub division like anatomy taxonomy, plant physiology, plant ecology, biochemistry, plant biotechnology, ethnobotany, economic botany, plant genetics and plant pathology.

By understanding botany, a person can play crucial role in agriculture plant conservation forest, conservation medicine and plant bio technology.

Botany also inspire curiosity about the nature and provide education opportunity to the students. Botany research also contribute in development of biofuel and other renewable resources that make us less dependent on fossil fuels. Botany also deals with the biodiversity, the understanding help to protect endangered species and their habitat.

Botanical knowledge is also helpful in discovering new drugs and understanding their effects.

 

Why Choose B.Sc. Pass course Medical (Botany)?

Ø Practical Training: Hands-on practical training is a crucial component of the course. Students typically engage in laboratory work, plant dissections, physiological experiments, and research field to apply theoretical knowledge in real-life scenarios. This practical training helps students develop essential skills and gain practical experience.

 

Ø Soft Skills Development:  This focus on the development of soft skills such as communication, teamwork, empathy, and professionalism.

 

Ø Elective Courses: Depending on the program structure, students may have the option to choose elective courses in specialized areas such as Plant Pathology, Plant Diversity, Environmental science, Tool and Techniques or Ethnobotany. Elective courses allow students to tailor their education according to their interests and career goals.

 

Career Opportunities: B.Sc. Pass course medical (Botany) opens up a wide range of career paths and opportunities in the field of agriculture, Homopathy, Ayurveda and Ethnobotany:

Subject Scope:

·       Can Work as School teacher, TGT and PGT

·       Become eligible for SSC CGL (AFCAT, CDS) Examination

·       Can work in Different medical companies, e.g. Ayurveda

·       Student can also opt for M.Sc. Botany

·       Can work as Lab Assistant/technician in schools.

·        

 

 

 

 

 

BOTANY SYLLABUS FOR B.S. PASS MEDICAL

 

 

Semester I

Semester II

Diversity of Microbes

Diversity of Archegoniates

Cell Biology

Genetics

Practical

Practical

Semester III

Semester IV

Biology and Diversity of Seed Plants-I

Biology and Diversity of Seed Plants-II

Plant Anatomy

Plant Embryology

Practical

Practical

Semester V

Semester VI

Plant Physiology

Biochemistry & Plant Biotechnology

Ecology

Economic Botany

Practical

Practical

 

                                                     

 

 

 

 

 

 

Syllabus (B.Sc. Botany)

 

                                                                  SEMESTER-I

DIVERSITY OF MICROBES

 

Internal Assessment-10

Max. Marks – 40

Time- 3 Hours

Note: Attempt five questions in all, selecting one question from each unit.

1.     Question No. 1 is compulsory (short answer type).

2.     Nine questions are to be set spread over the entire syllabus. All questions

             carry equal marks.

 

UNIT-I

 

1.     Bacteria: Structure, nutrition, reproduction and economic importance

2.     Cyanobacteria: General characters; life-history of Nostoc

3.     Algae: General characters, classification (upto classes) and economic importance;

4.     General account of algal blooms

 

UNIT II

 

1.     Important features and life-history (excluding development) of Volvox,

2.     Important features and life-history (excluding development) of Oedogonium

3.     (Chlorophyceae),

4.     Important features and life-history (excluding development) of Vaucheria (Xanthophyceae), Important features and life-history (excluding development) of Ectocarpus (Phaeophyceae)

5.     Important features and life-history (excluding development) of Polysiphonia (Rhodophyceae)

 

UNIT-III

 

1.     Viruses: General account of Viruses including structure of TMV and Bacteriophages

2.     Fungi: General characters, classification (upto classes) and economic importance;

3.     General account of Lichens

 

                                                                  UNIT- IV

 

1.     Important features and life-history of Phytophthora (Mastigomycotina),

2.     Important features and life-history of Mucor (Zygomycotina),

3.     Important features and life-history of Penicillium (Ascomycotina),

4.     Important features and life-history of Puccinia,

5.     Important features and life-history of Agaricus (Basidiomycotina),

6.     Important features and life-history of Colletotrichum (Deuteromycotina)

 

 

 

 

B.Sc. Botany

 

SEMESTER-I

 

CELL BIOLOGY

Internal Assessment-10

Max. Marks – 40

Time- 3 Hours

Note: Attempt five questions in all, selecting one question from each unit.

1.     Question no. 1 is compulsory (short answer type).

2.     Nine questions are to be set spread over the entire syllabus. All questions

carry equal marks.

 

UNIT-I

 

1.     The Cell Envelopes: Structure and functions of Cell Wall,

2.     Structure and functions of Plasma Membrane,

3.     Structure and functions of Golgi Apparatus

4.     Structure and functions of Endoplasmic Reticulum,

5.     Structure and functions of Lysosomes, Peroxisomes and Vacuoles.

 

UNIT II

 

1.     Ultra-structure and function: Chloroplast, Mitochondria, Nucleus and Nucleolus

2.     Chromosome: Morphology, ultra-structure – kinetochore, centromere and telomere

 

UNIT-III

 

Cell Cycle: General account

Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis – Stages and Significance

 

UNIT – IV

 

1.     Chromosomal aberrations: Structural and Numerical – deletions, duplications,

          translocations, inversions, aneuploidy, polyploidy

2.     Sex chromosomes and Sex determination in Plants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.Sc. Botany

 

Semester-II

 

DIVERSITY OF ARCHEGONIATES

 

Internal Assessment-10

Max. Marks – 40

Time- 3 Hours

Note: Attempt five questions in all, selecting one question from each unit.

 

1.     Question No. 1 is compulsory (short answer type).

2.     Nine questions are to be set spread over the entire syllabus. All questions carry equal marks.

 

UNIT-I

1.     Bryophyta- General characters, classification (upto classes),

2.     alternation of generations,

3.     evolution of sporophytes

4.     economic importance

UNIT -II

1.     Bryophyta: Structure and reproduction (excluding development) of Marchantia

2.     (Hepaticopsida)

3.     Structure and reproduction (excluding development) of Anthoceros (Anthocerotopsida)  Structure and reproduction (excluding development) of Funaria (Bryopsida)

 

UNIT-III

 

1.     Pteridophyta- General characters, classification (upto classes),

2.     alternation of generations, heterospory, apospory, apogamy

3.     Economic importance;

4.     General account of stellar evolution

 

UNIT IV

 

1.     Pteridophyta: Structure and reproduction (excluding development) of Rhynia

2.     (Psilopsida),

3.     Structure and reproduction (excluding development) of Selaginella (Lycopsida),

4.     Structure and reproduction (excluding development) of Equisetum (Sphenopsida)

5.     Structure and reproduction (excluding development) of Pteris (Pteropsida)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.Sc. Botany

 

SEMESTER-II

 

GENETICS

Max. Marks – 40

 Time- 3 Hours

Note: Attempt five questions in all, selecting one question from each unit.

1.     Question no. 1 is compulsory (short answer type).

2.     Nine questions are to be set spread over the entire syllabus. All questions

     carry equal marks.

 

UNIT-I

 

1.     Genetic Material: DNA – the genetic material, DNA structure and replication,

2.     DNAProtein interaction,

3.     The Nucleosome Model, Genetic Code, Satellite and RepetitiveDNA.

 

UNIT – II

 

1.     Genetic Inheritance: Mendelism: Laws of Segregation and Independent Assortment;

2.     Linkage Analysis;

3.     Allelic and non-allelic interactions.

 

UNIT-III

 

1.     Extra-nuclear Inheritance: Presence and function of Mitochondrial and Plastid DNA;Plasmids.

2.     Genetic Variations: Mutations – spontaneous and induced;

3.     Transposable geneticelements

4.      DNA damage and repair.

UNIT – IV

 

1.     Gene Expression: Modern concept of gene; RNA; Ribosomes;

2.     Transfer of genetic information – transcription and translation;

3.     Structure of proteins; Regulation of gene

4.     Expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.Sc. Botany Practical

 

FIRST AND SECOND SEMESTER

 

Diversity of Microbes, Archegoniate, Cell Biology and Genetics

 

Max. Marks: 100 Time allotted: 6Hours

 

1. Identify, classify and write short morphological notes giving well-labelled

relevant diagrams on the given specimens A, B, C and D from Algae and fungi.

(12)

2. Identify, classify and write short morphological notes giving well labelled

relevant diagrams on the given specimens E, F, G and H from Bryophytes and

Pteridophytes. (12)

3. Prepare smear/squash and find out two different stages of mitosis. Identify giving

characters of identification alongwith relevant diagram and show it to the

examiner. (8)

4. Cut the section of given material ‘I’ (Pteridophyte) and prepare a double-stained

permanent mount. Identify giving reasons of identification alongwith relevant

diagram and show it to the examiner. (10)

5. Two numericals regarding genetics (Mendelian inheritance and gene interaction)

as per syllabus. (8)

6. Identify giving two important characters of identification of the given spots 1, 2,

3,4 (One each from Algae, Fungi, Bryophyte and Pteridophyte) (8)

7. To prepare temporary mount of any plant pathological material. (4)

8. Any experiment designed by the examiner as per syllabus. (4)

9. Identify giving two important characters of identification of the given spots 1and

2 (One each from mitosis and meiosis) (4)

10. Field visit and collection records (10)

11. Practical records (10)

12. Viva-voce (10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.Sc. Botany

 

SEMESTER-III

 

BIOLOGY AND DIVERSITY OF SEED PLANTS –I

Internal Assessment-10

Max. Marks – 40

Time – 3 hrs.

Note: Attempt five questions in all, selecting one question from each unit.

1.     Question No.1 is compulsory (short answer type).

2.     Nine questions are to be set spread over the entire syllabus. All

            questions carry equal marks.

 

UNIT-I

 

1.     General characters, origin and evolution of Gymnosperms

2.     Geological Time Table; Evolution of Seed Habit.

3.     Pilger and Melchior’s (1954) system of classification of Gymnosperms.

 

UNIT-II

 

1.     Palaeobotany- Fossils and Fossilization (Process involved, types of fossils and

  importance of fossils)

       Reconstruction of the following fossil plants:

2.     Lyginopteris

3.     Williamsonia

4.     Cycadeoidea (= Bennettites)

 

UNIT-III

 

Morphology and anatomy of root, stem, leaf/leaflet and reproductive parts

including mode of reproduction, life-cycle and economic importance of following

plants:

1.     Cycas

2.     Pinus

 

UNIT-IV

 

Morphology and anatomy of root, stem, leaf/leaflet and reproductive parts

including mode of reproduction, life-cycle and economic importance of

1.     Ephedra

2.     Economic importance of Gymnosperms

3.     General characters, origin and evolution of Angiosperms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.Sc. Botany

 

SEMESTER-III

 

PLANT ANATOMY

Internal Assessment-10

Max. Marks – 40

Time – 3 hrs.

Note: Attempt five questions in all, selecting one question from each unit.

1.     Question No.1 is compulsory (short answer type).

2.     Nine questions are to be set spread over the entire syllabus. All

             questions carry equal marks.

 

UNIT-I

 

1.     Tissues – meristematic and permanent (simple, complex and secretory)

2.     Tissue systems (Epidermal, ground and vascular)

3.     The Shoot system – shoot apical meristem and its histological

organizations.

 

UNIT-II

 

1.     Cambium – structure and functions.

2.     Secondary growth in dicot stem; characteristics of growth rings; sap wood

and heart wood, periderm

3.     Anomalous secondary growth (Dracaena, Boerhaavia and Achyranthes)

 

UNIT-III

 

1.     Leaf: Types of leaves (simple and compound); phyllotaxy.

2.     Epidermis-uniseriate and ultiseriate, epidermal appendages and their

           morphological types.

3.     Anatomy of typical Monocot and Dicot leaf and cell inclusions in leaves,

            Leaf abscission,

4.     Stomatal apparatus and their morphological types

 

UNIT-IV

 

1.     Root system: Root apical meristem; histological organization

2.     Secondary growth in dicot root.

3.     Structural modifications in roots: Storage (Beta), Respiratory

           (Rhizophora), Epiphytic (Vanda).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.Sc. Botany

 

SEMESTER- IV

 

BIOLOGY AND DIVERSITY OF SEED PLANTS-II

 

Internal Assessment-10

Max. Marks – 40

Time – 3 hrs

Note: Attempt five questions in all, selecting one question from each unit.

1.     Question No.1 is compulsory (short answer type).

2.     Nine questions are to be set spread over the entire syllabus. All questions carry equal marks.

 

UNIT-I

 

1.     Taxonomy and Systematics, fundamental components of taxonomy (identification,

2.     classification, description, nomenclature and phylogeny),

3.     Role of chemotaxonomy,

4.     cytotaxonomy and taximetrics in relation to taxonomy,

5.     Botanical Nomenclature,principles and rules, principle of priority,

6.     Keys to identification of plants.

 

UNIT-II

1.     Type concept, taxonomic ranks,

2.     Salient features of the systems of classification of

3.     angiosperms proposed by Bentham & Hooker and Engler & Prantl,

4.     Floral Termsand Types of Inflorescence

 

UNIT-III

 

Diversity of Flowering Plants: Diagnostic features and economic importance of the

following families:

1.     Ranunculaceae,

2.     Brassicaceae,

3.     Malvaceae,

4.     Euphorbiaceae,

5.     Rutaceae,

6.     Fabaceae,

7.     Cucurbitaceae

 

UNIT-IV

Diversity of Flowering Plants: Diagnostic features and economic importance of the families

1.     Apiaceae,

2.     Asclepiadaceae,

3.     Lamiaceae,

4.     Solanaceae,

5.     Asteraceae,

6.     Liliaceae

7.     Poaceae

B.Sc. Botany

 

SEMESTER- IV

 

PLANT EMBRYOLOGY

Internal Assessment-10

Max. Marks – 40

Time – 3 hrs.

Note: Attempt five questions in all, selecting two questions from each unit.

1.     Question No.1 is compulsory (short answer type).

2.     Nine questions are to be set spread over the entire syllabus. All questions carry equal marks.

 

UNIT-I

 

Flower-a modified shoot, Microsporangium, its wall and dehiscence mechanism.

Microsporogenesis, pollen grains and its structure (pollen wall).

 

UNIT -II

 

Pollen germination (microgametogenesis), Male gametophyte, Pollen-pistil

interaction; self-incompatibility, Pollination: types and agencies

 

UNIT-III

 

Structure of Megasporangium (ovule), its curvatures; Megasporogenesis and

Megagametogenesis,Female gametophyte (mono, bi and tetrasporic), Double

fertilization,Endosperm types and its biological importance.

 

UNIT-IV

 

Embryogenesis in Dicot and Monocot; Polyembryony, Structure of Dicot and

Monocot seed, Fruit types; Dispersal mechanisms in fruits and seeds.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRACTICALS

 

B.Sc. Botany Practical

 

IIIrd and IVth Semester

 

Biology & Diversity of Seed Plants-I Plant Anatomy

 

Biology & Diversity of Seed Plants-II, Plant Embryology

 

Max. Marks: 100                                                                             Time allotted: 6Hours

 

1 Cut the section of given material from gymnosperms and prepare a double-stained

permanent mount. Identify giving reasons and show it to the examiner. (10)

2 Cut the section of given material from angiosperms and prepare a double-stained

permanent mount. Identify giving reasons and show it to the examiner. (10)

3 Identify, classify and write morphological notes on the given material/specimens A

& B from Gymnosperms. (8)

4 Identify, giving the important characters of identification of the spots/specimen 1

and 2 from Gymnosperms and 3 and 4 from angiosperms. (8)

5 Describe/compare the given flowers C and D in semi-technical language giving

V.S. of flowers, T.S. of ovaries, floral diagrams and Floral Formulae. Identify and

assign them to their respective families giving reasons. (14)

6 Dissect out the globular/heart-shaped embryo from the given material. (6)

7 To study pollen germination by in vitro/in vivo methods. (4)

8 Identify, giving the important characters of identification of the spots 1, 2 and 3

from embryology. (6)

9 Any experiment designed by the examiner as per syllabus (4)

10 Filed visit and collection records (10)

11 Note-book (10)

12 Viva-voce (10)

.



 

 

B. Sc. III

 

SEMESTER-V

 

Plant Physiology

Internal Assessment-10

Max. Marks – 40

Time – 3 hrs.

Note: Five questions to be attempted in all, selecting one question from each unit.

1.     Question No. 1 will be compulsory (short answer type).

2.     Nine questions are to be set spread over the entire syllabus.

All questions carry equal marks

.

UNIT-I

 

Plant-water relations: Importance of water to plant life; physical properties of water;

imbibition, diffusion and osmosis; absorption and transport of water; transpiration;

physiology of stomata.

Mineral nutrition: Essential macro and micro elements and their role; mineral uptake;

deficiency symptoms.

 

UNIT -II

 

Transport of organic substances: Mechanism of phloem transport; source-sink

relationship; factors affecting translocation.

 

Photosynthesis: significance; historical aspects; photosynthetic pigments; action spectra

and enhancement effects; concept of two photosystems; Z-scheme; photophosphorylation;

Calvin cycle; C4 pathway; CAM plants; photorespiration.

 

UNIT-III

 

Growth and development: Definitions; phases of growth and development; seed

dormancy; plant movements; the concept of photoperiodism; physiology of

flowering; florigen concept; physiology of senescence; fruit ripening;

 

UNIT -IV

 

Plant hormones- auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscissic acid and ethylene, history of

their discovery, mechanism of action; photo-morphogenesis;

Phytochromes and their discovery, physiological role and mechanism of action.

 


 

 

 

B. Sc. III (Botany)

 

SEMESTER-V

 

Ecology

Internal Assessment-10

Max. Marks – 40

Time – 3 hrs.

Note: Five questions to be attempted in all, selecting two questions from each unit.

1.     Question No. 1 will be compulsory (short answer type).

2.     Nine questions are to be set spread over the entire syllabus. All questions carry equal marks.

 

UNIT-I

 

Introduction to Ecology: Definition; scope and importance; levels of organization .

Environment: Introduction; environmental factors- climatic (water, humidity, wind, light,

temperature), edaphic (soil profile, physico-chemical properties), topographic and

biotic factors (species interaction).

 

UNIT-II

 

Adaptations of plants to water stress and salinity (morphological and anatomical features

of hydrophytes, xerophytes and halophytes).

Population ecology: Basic concept; characteristics; biotic potential, growth curves;

ecotypes and ecads.

 

UNIT-II

 

Community ecology: Concepts; characteristics (qualitative and quantitative-analytical

and synthetic); methods of analysis; ecological succession.

Ecosystem: Structure (components) and functions (trophic levels, food chains, food webs,

ecological pyramids and energy flow)

Biogeochemical cycles: Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and hydrological cycle.

 

UNIT-IV

 

Phyto-geography: Phyto-geographical regions of India; vegetation types of India (forests).

Environmental pollution: Sources, types and control of air and water pollution.

Global change: Greenhouse effect and greenhouse gases; impacts of global warming;